[Professor] Zimdars puts the news sites into four categories. Category one deals with sites that rely on “outrage culture”, using distorted headlines or misleading information. Category two are sites that “circulate misleading and/or potentially unreliable information.” Category three is for more click-bait type websites that still deliver questionable information. And category four deals with satires news site like The Onion. The satires sites are included into the list because Zimdars thinks they sometimes contribute to the cycle of misinformation. The list includes sites like Info Wars, Occupy Democrats, Project Veritas, and Breitbart News.
Examples of fake news from the above sites are shown by CNN. Another, earlier list, identifies many left wing fake news web sites such as Occupy Democrats (click for more on that). Most are for profit, social-media-based, online publishers, who profit by selling eyeballs to advertisers. They market their web sites by creating finely targeted propaganda posters that target the emotions, encouraging widespread Likes and Shares on social media, to drive traffic to their web sites.
Update: One of the alleged fake news sites blasts back with a hit piece attacking the professor, rather than the issue of the content on these sites and why they might be considered “fake news”.
The “official” list uses a broad definition of “fake news” to include not only fictional and false stories created to appear like real news, but also includes satire web sites (such as The Onion) that produce humorous fictional news stories, as well as web sites that create original reporting but are partisan (such as Breitbart News). A problem in categorizing web sites is the lack of a uniform definition of “fake news” and “fake news web site”.